Sports-related Concussion: When medicine and sport meet head on
Long-Term Effects
Boxing glove

Although some believe that more research is needed on the long-term effects of multiple concussions, one study suggests that the risks for long-term effects (especially after repeated concussions) goes up significantly after 3 previous concussions.20

Once referred to as “Punch Drunk Syndrome” (and thought to only affect boxers), the research now suggests that chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a disease that occurs years or decades after repetitive concussions or other head traumas. Irritability, suicidal thoughts, memory loss, dementia, and abnormalities in movement, speech and ocular function have all been reported.21